Hematology

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Blood composition 

Hematology is a branch of medical laboratory that special with the study of general information about blood. In a clinical setting, the main purpose of hematology is for the examination of abnormality in the blood. Blood has the following constituent; the plasma, and the red blood cells. When blood is collected from a patient, it is called whole blood, whole blood, is a blood of which none of it component is extracted out from it.

In a laboratory investigation, the following test is the essential test carried out on blood, which are; examination of different type of blood cells

Relative distribution of different group of blood cells

Chemical component of blood

Structural abnormality.

Hematological investigation is one of the essential investigation requested up on admission of a patient in the hospital because many disease yield sign and symptom that is hematological in nature.

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The test require is sometime called complete blood count (CBC), or full blood count (FBC). On the investigation of full blood count; the following parameter is usually analyze;

White blood cells (WBC)

Differential count (DC)

Platelet

Morphological abnormality of reds cells

Packed cells volume (PCV)

Hemoglobin (HB)

Mean cells Hemoglobin (MCH)

And many more.

Since many factor affect blood equilibrium, the purpose of hematological investigation essentially, is to outline the magnitude of the disease or to isolate either disorder is hematological or non-hematological.

Also hematological investigation can diagnose the following condition;

Nutritional disease

Metabolic disease

Inflammatory disease

Infectious disease

Hereditary abnormality

Hormone abnormality

Neoplastic

Drugs induced condition

Blood absorb oxygen present in the lung, it help circulating the oxygen round the body system, and bring carbon dioxide to the lung to be expel from the body system through nose. Blood also absorb the nutrient and other essential substance in the gastro intestinal track, and then supplied it to the required tissue in the body system. All harmful waste product in the body system are collected by the blood, and transported to their respective organs for excretion.

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Normal healthy adult have equivalent blood of 7-8% by weight, and 6 to 7 quantity of liter of blood in their body system.

Plasma component of blood is a fluid that the following substance are suspended in;

White blood cells (WBC)

Erythrocyte or Red blood cells (RBC)

Leucocyte

Platelet

Thrombocyte

Blood volume is made up of 55% of plasma, the plasma is made up of 90% of water and the remaining 10% are combination of the following; Protein, Carbohydrate, Lipids, Enzymes, Hormone, Vitamin and Salt. Erythrocyte is the highest suspended cell in the plasma, follow by leucocyte while the platelet are associated with blood coagulation process. Erythrocyte has the maximum concentration of hemoglobin, hemoglobin is the red pigment colour of the red blood cells that carried oxygen round the system and return carbon dioxide to the lung for excretion. Leucocyte have different form of existence each of it have its own function of defense mechanism in the body system.

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