Acid-Base Balance of the Body System


pH of Blood

Blood pH is an essential parameter for estimating acid and base balance in the body system. Before normal body system can be maintained, the extracellular fluid pH should be keep a limited range within 7.37 to 7.45. Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is chemical compound found in the body system, it play a significant role in the acid-base balance of the body system. Carbonic acid is produce abundantly by anerobic process via the metabolism of organic substance in the body tissue.

The constant equilibrium of acid-base balance are held constant by maximum bicarbonate ion (HCO3-). The bicarbonate act as a buffer solution, below are the equation;

H+ + HCO3- ↔ H2CO3 ↔ H2O + CO2

As it shown on the above equation, the maintenance of normal blood pH within 7.37 to 7.45 is achieved when Carbon dioxide (CO2) is removed by lung during expiration.

More also maintenance of normal blood pH equilibrium is carried  out by renal enzyme carbonic anhydrase by catalyzing  a reaction between water (O2H) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to form carbonic acid. The braking down of the acid yield H+ and HCO3- product. Among the product form, hydrogen ion is excreted by the kidney into the urine, and the bicarbonate is recycle to restore bicarbonate level of the plasma.


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