A transient itchy inflammatory skin and mucosal condition recognised by a wheal and flare reaction. There are many causes. In most chronic cases the precipitant for the urticaria is never found. Lesions due to insect bite are often grouped, show a central bite mark and are on exposed areas of the body. They are often associated with secondary features such as excoriations, vesicles, pigmentary changes and infection. 


Limit exposure to triggers such as non-immune mast cell degranulators, which aggravate and prolong urticaria, e.g. codeine, NSAIDs, salicylates, alcohol, etc.



Regular use is recommended until the urticaria is quiescent. If one antihistamine does not provide relief, change to, or add another class of  antihistamine.

For chronic urticaria less sedating antihistamines are preferable.

  • Cetirizine, oral, 10 mg daily.

Avoid oral corticosteroids.

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